Nitric oxide (NO) is a colorless, free radical gas that carries a variety of messages between cells. Vasorelaxation, [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/research-areas/neuroscience/neurotransmission.html]][[Caption:neurotransmission]] and cytotoxicity can all be potentiated through cellular response to NO. NO production is mediated by members of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family including the two constitutive isoforms: brain, bNOS, or neuronal NOS, [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/nnos]][[Caption:nNOS]] (type I) and endothelial cell NOS, [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/enos]][[Caption:eNOS]] (type III); along with the inducible isoform, [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/inos]][[Caption:iNOS]] (type II). NOS catalyzes the oxidization of L-arginine to produce L-citrulline and NO, requiring the cofactors [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/calmodulin]][[Caption:calmodulin]], nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/heme]][[Caption:heme]], and [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/tetrahydrobiopterin]][[Caption:tetrahydrobiopterin]] (1).
The 131 kDa enzyme, iNOS, is found in a variety of cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes, synoviocytes, and smooth muscle cells. While constitutively expressed in kidneys, in other tissues iNOS is induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), growth factors, and [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/research-areas/immunology/chemokines-cytokines]][[Caption:cytokines]] such as [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/ifn-gamma]][[Caption:IFN-gamma]], [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/tnf-alpha]][[Caption:TNF]], [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/il-1-beta-il-1f2]][[Caption:IL-1]] and [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/common-name/il-2]][[Caption:IL-2]]. iNOS is not regulated by the level of intracellular Ca2+ and is constantly active as a dimer when expressed. iNOS activity is elevated in a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis, heart failure, sepsis, solid tumors, and [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/research-areas/lipid-and-metabolism-diabetes-research.html]][[Caption:type 2 diabetes]]. Acting as a critical mediator of [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/research-areas/immunology/inflammation]][[Caption:inflammation]] and [[URL:https://www.novusbio.com/research-areas/apoptosis]][[Caption:apoptosis]], iNOS inhibitors have been shown to alleviate obesity and stress inducted insulin resistance in mouse models (2,3).
1. Forstermann U, and Sessa WC. (2012) Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. Eur Heart J. 33(7): 829-837. PMID: 21890489
2. Aktan F. (2004) iNOS-mediated nitric oxide production and its regulation. Life Sci. 75(6):639-53. PMID: 15172174
3. Cinelli MA, Do HT, Miley GP, Silverman RB. (2020) Inducible nitric oxide synthase: Regulation, structure, and inhibition. Med Res Rev. 40(1):158-189. PMID: 31192483
Antigen Affinity Purified
Synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids from the N-terminal region of the human variant of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)
Recommended that the undiluted antibody be aliquoted into smaller working volumes (10-30 uL/vial depending on usage) upon arrival and stored long term at -20° C or -80° C, while keeping a working aliquot stored at 4° C for short term. Avoid freeze/thaw cycles. Stable for at least 1 year.
PBS + 0.02% NaN3
WB Brain: 1:500-1:1000
Reacts with the N-terminal region of the human variant of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The neuronal form of NOS (nNOS) is one of three forms and is enzymatically active as a dimer.
Western blots performed on each lot.
For research use only. Not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Use of all products is subject to our terms and conditions, which can be viewed on our website.
After date of receipt, stable for at least 1 year at -20°C.
neuronal nitric oxide synthase, BNOS, Constitutive NOS, IHPS1, N-NOS, Nitric oxide synthase 1, NOS type I, NC-NOS